Principle of cryogenic device


A cryogenic device is a device that uses a refrigerant to deeply cool an object. The cryogenic device can reduce the temperature of the object to the required low temperature to meet specific needs. Cryogenic devices are used in many different fields, such as pharmaceuticals, chemicals, aerospace, military, etc. This article will introduce the function, principle, structure and application of cryogenic device.

1. role

The main function of the cryogenic device is to reduce the temperature of the object to the required low temperature to meet specific needs. Cryogenic devices can be used in the following areas:

Pharmaceutical field: The cryogenic device can be used to freeze pharmaceutical raw materials, drugs, biochemical products, etc., making it easier to store and transport.

Chemical industry: cryogenic devices can be used to cool chemical reagents, catalysts, coatings, etc., to reduce their reaction speed and extend their service life.

Aerospace field: Cryogenic devices can be used to manufacture cryogenic media such as liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen in aerospace equipment.

Military field: cryogenic devices can be used to manufacture high-energy lasers, ballistic missiles and other military equipment.

2. principle

The working principle of the cryogenic device is to use the cycle of the refrigerant to reduce the temperature of the object to the required low temperature. Specifically, the cryogenic device includes components such as a compressor, a condenser, an expansion valve, an evaporator, and a pipeline. A refrigerant circulates between these sections, thereby lowering the temperature of the object to a desired low temperature.

3. structure

The structure of the cryogenic device includes compressor, condenser, expansion valve, evaporator, pipeline, controller and other components. Among them, the compressor is used to compress the refrigerant into high-pressure gas, the condenser is used to cool the high-pressure gas into high-pressure liquid, the expansion valve is used to expand the high-pressure liquid into low-pressure liquid, and the evaporator is used to evaporate the low-pressure liquid into low-temperature vapor. The pipeline is used to connect the various components, and the controller is used to control parameters such as temperature and pressure.

Refrigerant circulation system: The core of the cryogenic device is the refrigerant circulation system, which includes components such as compressor, condenser, expansion valve, evaporator and pipeline. The refrigerant circulates in this system to achieve a decrease in temperature.
Cooling effect: The cryogenic device uses different types of refrigerants (such as liquid nitrogen and liquid argon) to quickly reduce the temperature of the measured object to achieve the required low temperature conditions.
Control system: In order to ensure the normal operation of the cryogenic device and the accuracy of temperature control, a control system is required. The control system is responsible for monitoring and controlling the temperature, pressure, flow and other parameters of the equipment to ensure the normal and stable operation of the equipment.

Auxiliary components: In addition to the main refrigerant circulation system and control system, the cryogenic device may also contain some auxiliary components, such as dryers, air compressors, adsorption and separation devices, nitrogen compression liquefaction machines, and temperature sensors. These components work together to achieve the ultimate goal of cryogenic.

In summary, the working principle of the cryogenic device is to reduce the temperature through the refrigerant circulation system, and to ensure the reliability and efficiency of the entire process through the precise control of the control system.